ITR is continuously striving towards refining techniques used in preclinical testing and conforming to the Three Rs (3Rs; Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) guiding principles for the more ethical use of animals in safety testing.  The most recent improvement results in a considerable reduction in the total number of mice used in toxicology studies, specifically for toxicokinetic evaluation subsets, through the development of a single‑handed blood collection technique via the jugular vein.  Until now in pre-clinical toxicology studies, blood collection in mice, including small volumes, was standardly performed terminally via the abdominal aorta or cardiac puncture, necessitating a new subset of animals assigned to each blood collection occasion.  Utilizing this technique allows for the sub groups of mice bled on Day 1 to be maintained throughout the course of a study for use on multiple blood collection occasions.